FAQ: Common Questions about Calenia Energia

1. What type of plant is Calenia's power station and what are the primary reasons for this choice?

Calenia's power station is a combined cycle plant, utilising both a gas turbine and a steam turbine. The hot gases generated from the combustion of natural gas inside the gas turbine produce high-pressure steam to power the steam turbine. Our choice was motivated by the advantages of combined cycle technology, which is generally considered the most efficient on the market. Some advantages include:

• low environmental impact
• higher energy efficiency
• cost reduction
• lower greenhouse gas emissions

2. What determined your choice of location for the plant?

Following an in-depth assessment we concluded that Sparanise's abandoned industrial area, "ex-Pozzi", was the most suitable site for the construction of our plant. Our assessment was based on several factors:Following an in-depth assessment we concluded that Sparanise's abandoned industrial area, "ex-Pozzi", was the most suitable site for the construction of our plant. Our assessment was based on several factors:

• Environmental impact
• Resident population
• Presence of factories
• Emissions
• Landscape constraints

3. Why does Calenia's power station have a capacity of 760 MW?

The plant comprises two distinct units of 380 MW each, for a total of 760 MW. This reduces costs and minimises environmental impact.

4. Which fuels does the power station use?

The power station is designed to operate exclusively on natural gas. This choice is in line with Calenia's commitment to limit our environmental impact as this gas is the least polluting fossil fuel and entails considerably lower emissions of sulphur and dust.

5. What are the sources and levels of pollution created by the station produce?

The plant's primary pollution source is the combustion fumes released into the atmosphere by two 50-metre chimneys, each equipped with monitoring stations to quantify emissions. The only harmful pollutants are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). Emissions are lower than 30mg/Nm3 for NOx and 24 mg/Nm3 for CO, which remains within the limits set by European Law and the Ministry of Health. Compliance with the above limits is ensured by the functioning of modern gas turbines, now equipped with dry-cooling technology.

6. Are there harmful, polluting substances in the soil?

The probability of pollutants being present in the ground is minimal, given the height of the chimneys (50 metres) and the 100°C temperature of the fumes. These factors ensure the fumes' dispersion into the atmosphere in all weather conditions. In any case, estimated values of NOx concentration are equal to less than half the legal limits imposed by European Law.

7. Can you guarantee your full compliance with pollution standards?

Pollution values are monitored 24 hours a day. All data is collected in a central computer and submitted to the Campania Regional Environmental Protection Agency, which in turn makes it available for viewing.

8. Can the power station affect the local microclimate?

No. The station's functioning has no impact on weather conditions, not even in the immediate surroundings of the plant. This is because the plant's cooling mechanism was designed to be air-based, preventing any significant quantities of steam from being released into the atmosphere. Air temperature variation in the proximity of the plant does not exceed 0.1° C.

9. How much water is taken from the local ecosystem?

Water withdrawal from the surrounding territory is considerably low, thanks to air-cooled condensers that allow the treatment and reuse of boiler water. An approximate estimate of well water withdrawal could be 5-10 m3/h.

10. How is your compliance with the project criteria verified?

Authorization procedures involve several assessment phases. The project's environmental compatibility is evaluated through an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The results are processed by the EIA Commission (composed of the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and the regional government) and made public. Once a decree of environmental compatibility is issued, the next phase of the authorization process commences. It consists of a series of conferences attended by the Ministries of:

• Productive Activities
• Environment
• Culture
• Health
• Communications

As well as:

• Regional authorities
• The Province and municipalities involved
• The River authorities
• The NTG operator

A number of requirements, including in the authorization decree, serve as mandatory conditions for the operation of the plant.

11. Does the power station emit fine dust (PM10)?

A commission composed of the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Health and the National Research Council has disproved the claims of two NRC researchers, which were based on an assumption error regarding data extracted from an American study. A document issued by the Ministerial Commission proved that fine dust (PM10) emissions were negligible for a power plant of this type.

12. Are emissions from a gas-fuelled combined cycle harmful to health?

No. The plant's emission level is well below the limits set by Italian law, as it operates in compliance with European regulations relating to health and environmental protection.

13. Does the power plant negatively affect nearby crops?

No. Effects on the soil are below the limits set by EU regulations for environmental protection. Even from the perspective of microclimate, the plant does not produce any noticeable changes in soil or crops.

14. How do local residents feel about the presence of the power plant?

The Calenia plant project has been subject to many inspections and approvals by:

• Local Authorities (municipal, provincial and regional)
• Ministries (Environment; Productive Activities, Culture, Health)
• the National Institute of Health

Among other analyses, a commission of experts appointed by the Ministry of the Environment conducted an Environmental Impact Assessment that yielded positive results with regards to environmental and public health protection. In addition to this, a 24-hour monitoring system was installed to measure emissions from the plant's chimneys, guaranteeing full compliance with legal environmental limits. Calenia also installed a control unit to measure the concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere.